Translated by R. Shamasastry Contents: The end of Sciences; association with the aged; restraint of the organs of sense; the creation of ministers; the creation of councillors and priests; ascertaining by temptations purity or impurity in the character of ministers; the institution of spies. The school of Manu Manava hold that there are only three sciences: the triple Vedas, Varta and the science of government, inasmuch as the science of Anvikshaki is nothing but a special branch of the Vedas. The school of Brihaspati say that there are only two sciences: Varta and the science of government, inasmuch as the Triple Vedas are merely an abridgment Samvarana, pretext?

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Translated by R. Shamasastry Contents: The end of Sciences; association with the aged; restraint of the organs of sense; the creation of ministers; the creation of councillors and priests; ascertaining by temptations purity or impurity in the character of ministers; the institution of spies. The school of Manu Manava hold that there are only three sciences: the triple Vedas, Varta and the science of government, inasmuch as the science of Anvikshaki is nothing but a special branch of the Vedas.

The school of Brihaspati say that there are only two sciences: Varta and the science of government, inasmuch as the Triple Vedas are merely an abridgment Samvarana, pretext?

The school of Usanas declare that there is only one science, and that the science of government; for, they say, it is in that science that all other sciences have their origin and end. But Kautilya holds that four and only four are the sciences; wherefore it is from these sciences that all that concerns righteousness and wealth is learnt, therefore they are so called. Anvikshaki comprises the Philosophy of Sankhya, Yoga, and Lokayata. Righteous and unrighteous acts Dharmadharmau are learnt from the triple Vedas; wealth and non-wealth from Varta; the expedient and the inexpedient Nayanayau , as well as potency and impotency Balabale from the science of government.

When seen in the light of these sciences, the science of Anvikshaki is most beneficial to the world, keeps the mind steady and firm in weal and woe alike, and bestows excellence of foresight, speech and action.

Light to all kinds of knowledge, easy means to accomplish all kinds of acts and receptacle of all kinds of virtues, is the Science of Anvikshaki ever held to be. Determination of the place of the Triple Vedas. These together with Atharvaveda and the Itihasaveda are known as the Vedas. Siksha Phonetics , Kalpa ceremonial injunctions , Vyakarana grammar , Nirukta glossarial explanation of obscure Vedic terms , Chandas Prosody , and Astronomy form the Angas.

As the triple Vedas definitely determine the respective duties of the four castes and of the four orders of religious life, they are the most useful. That of a Kshatriya is study, performance of sacrifice, giving gifts, military occupation, and protection of life. That of a Vaisya is study, performance of sacrifice, giving gifts, agriculture, cattle breeding, and trade.

That of a Sudra is the serving of twice-born dvijati , agriculture, cattle-breeding, and trade varta , the profession of artizans and court-bards karukusilavakarma. The duty of a householder is earning livelihood by his own profession, marriage among his equals of different ancestral Rishis, intercourse with his wedded wife after her monthly ablution, gifts to gods, ancestors, guests, and servants, and the eating of the remainder.

That of a Vanaprastha forest-recluse is observance of chastity, sleeping on the bare ground, keeping twisted locks, wearing deer-skin, fire-worship, ablution, worship of gods, ancestors, and guests, and living upon food stuffs procurable in forests. That of an ascetic retired from the world Parivrajaka is complete control of the organs of sense, abstaining from all kinds of work, disowning money, keeping from society, begging in many places, dwelling in forests, and purity both internal and external.

Harmlessness, truthfulness, purity, freedom from spite, abstinence from cruelty, and forgiveness are duties common to all. When it is violated, the world will come to an end owing to confusion of castes and duties. Hence the king shall never allow people to swerve from their duties; for whoever upholds his own duty, ever adhering to the customs of the Aryas, and following the rules of caste and divisions of religious life, will surely.

For the world, when maintained in accordance with injunctions of the triple Vedas, will surely progress, but never perish. Varta and Dandaniti. It is most useful in that it brings in grains, cattle, gold, forest produce kupya , and free labour vishti.

That sceptre on which the well-being and progress of the sciences of Anvikshaki, the triple Vedas, and Varta depend is known as Danda punishment. That which treats of Danda is the law of punishment or science of government dandaniti. It is a means to make acquisitions, to keep them secure, to improve them, and to distribute among the deserved the profits of.

It is on this science of government that the course of the progress of the world depends. Never can there be a better instrument than the sceptre to bring people under control. But whoever imposes punishment as deserved becomes respectable. For punishment danda when awarded with due consideration, makes the people devoted to righteousness and to works productive of wealth and enjoyment; while punishment, when ill-awarded under the influence of greed and anger or owing to ignorance, excites fury even among hermits and ascetics dwelling in forests, not to speak of householders.

But when the law of punishment is kept in abeyance, it gives rise to such disorder as is implied in the proverb of fishes matsyanyayamudbhavayati ; for in the absence of a magistrate dandadharabhave , the strong will swallow the weak; but under his protection, the weak resist the strong.

This people loka consisting of four castes and four orders of religious life, when governed by the king with his sceptre, will keep to their respective paths, ever devotedly adhering to their respective duties and occupations.

HENCE the first three sciences out of the four are dependent for their well-being on the science of government. Danda, punishment, which alone can procure safety and security of life is, in its turn, dependent on discipline vinaya.

Discipline is of two kinds: artificial and natural; for instruction kriya can render only a docile being conformable to the rules of discipline, and not an undocile being adravyam. The study of sciences can tame only those who are possessed of such mental faculties as obedience, hearing, grasping, retentive memory, discrimination, inference, and deliberation, but not others devoid of such faculties.

Sciences shall be studied and their precepts strictly observed under the authority of specialist teachers. Having undergone the ceremony of tonsure, the student shall learn the alphabet lipi and arithmetic. After investiture with sacred thread, he shall study the triple Vedas, the science of Anvikshaki under teachers of acknowledged authority sishta , the science of Vatra under government superintendents, and the science of Dandaniti under theoretical and practical politicians vaktriprayoktribhyah.

He the prince shall observe celibacy till he becomes sixteen years old. Then he shall observe the ceremony of tonsure godana and marry. In view of maintaining efficient discipline, he shall ever and invariably keep company with aged professors of sciences in whom alone discipline has its firm root.

He shall spend the forenoon in receiving lessons in military arts concerning elephants, horses, chariots, and weapons, and the afternoon in hearing the Itihasa. Purana, Itivritta history , Akhyayika tales , Udaharana illustrative stories , Dharmasastra, and Arthasastra are known by the name Itihasa.

During the rest of the day and night, he shall not only receive new lessons and revise old lessons, but also hear over and again what has not been clearly understood. For from hearing sutra ensues knowledge; from knowledge steady application yoga is possible; and from application self-possession atmavatta is possible. This is what is meant by efficiency of learning vidhyasamarthyam.

The king who is well educated and disciplined in sciences, devoted to good Government of his subjects, and bent on doing good to all people will enjoy the earth unopposed. The Shaking off of the Aggregate of the Six Enemies. Absence of discrepancy avipratipatti in the perception of sound, touch, colour, flavour, and scent by means of the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose, is what is meant by the restraint of the organs of sense.

Strict observance of the precepts of sciences also means the same; for the sole aim of all the sciences is nothing but restraint of the organs of sense. Whosoever is of reverse character, whoever has not his organs of sense under his control, will soon perish, though possessed of the whole earth bounded by the four quarters. Thus these and other several kings, falling a prey to the aggregate of the six enemies and having failed to restrain their organs of sense, perished together with their kingdom and relations.

The Life of a Saintly King. HENCE by overthrowing the aggregate of the six enemies, he shall restrain the organs of sense; acquire wisdom by keeping company with the aged; see through his spies; establish safety and security by being ever active; maintain his subjects in the observance of their respective duties by exercising authority; keep up his personal discipline by receiving lessons in the sciences; and endear himself to the people by bringing them in contact with wealth and doing good to them.

Thus with his organs of sense under his control, he shall keep away from hurting the women and property of others; avoid not only lustfulness, even in dream, but also falsehood, haughtiness, and evil proclivities; and keep away from unrighteous and uneconomical transactions. Not violating righteousness and economy, he shall enjoy his desires.

He shall never be devoid of happiness. He may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life, charity, wealth, and desire, which are inter-dependent upon each other. Any one of these three, when enjoyed to an excess, hurts not only the other two, but also itself. Kautilya holds that wealth and wealth alone is important, inasmuch as charity and desire depend upon wealth for their realisation.

A single wheel can never move. Hence he shall employ ministers and hear their opinion. But he shall employ as ministers those whose secrets, possessed of in common, are well known to him. Possessed of habits and defects in common. Hence he shall employ as ministers those who have proved faithful to him under difficulties fatal to life and are of tried devotion. He shall appoint as ministers those who, when employed as financial matters, show as much as, or more than, the fixed revenue, and are thus of tried ability.

Hence he shall employ as ministers such new persons as are proficient in the science of polity. It is such new persons who will regard the king as the real sceptre-bearer dandadhara and dare not offend him. Hence he shall employ as ministers such as are born of high family and possessed of wisdom, purity of purpose, bravery and loyal feelings inasmuch as ministerial appointments shall purely depend on qualifications.

Such as are possessed of one-half or one-quarter of the above qualifications come under middle and low ranks. The works of a king may be visible, invisible paroksha and inferential. That which he sees is visible; and that which he is taught by another is invisible; and inference of the nature of what is not accomplished from what is accomplished is inferential..

As works do not happen to be simultaneous, are various in form, and pertain to distant and different localities, the king shall, in view of being abreast of time and place, depute his ministers to carry them out.

Such is the work of ministers. As a student his teacher, a son his father, and a servant his master, the king shall follow him. This is what is called religious allurement. A commander of the army, dismissed from service for receiving condemnable things asatpragraha may, through the agency of spies under the guise of class-mates satri , incite each minister to murder the king in view of acquiring immense wealth, each minister being asked "this attempt is to the liking of all of us; what dost thou think?

This is what is termed monetary allurement. This is what is styled love-allurement. With the intention of sailing on a commercial vessel prahavananimittam , a minister may induce all other ministers to follow him. Apprehensive of danger, the king may arrest them all. A spy under the guise of a fraudulent disciple, pretending to have suffered imprisonment may incite each of the ministers thus deprived of wealth and rank, saying, "the king has betaken himself to an unwise course; well, having murdered him, let us put another in his stead.

We all like this; what dost thou think? This is what is termed allurement under fear. Teachers have decided that in accordance with ascertained purity, the king shall employ in corresponding works those ministers whose character has been tested under the three pursuits of life, religion, wealth and love, and under fear.

Never, in the view of Kautilya, shall the king make himself or his queen an object laksham, butt of testing the character of his councillors, nor shall he vitiate the pure like water with poison. Sometimes the prescribed medicine may fail to reach the person of moral disease; the mind of the valiant, though naturally kept steadfast, may not, when once vitiated and repelled under the four kinds of allurements, return to and recover its original form.

A skillful person capable of guessing the mind of others is a fraudulent disciple. Having encouraged such a spy with honour and money rewards, the minister shall tell him, "sworn to the king and myself, thou shalt inform us of whatever wickedness thou findest in others. All the ascetics under the recluse shall severally send their followers on similar errands. A cultivator, fallen from his profession, but possessed of foresight and pure character is termed a householder spy.

This spy shall carry on the cultivation of lands allotted to him for the purpose, and maintain cultivators, etc. A trader, fallen from his profession, but possessed of foresight and pure character, is a merchant spy. This spy shall carry on the manufacture of merchandise on lands allotted to him for the purpose, etc. A man with shaved head munda or braided hair jatila and desirous to earn livelihood is a spy under the guise of an ascetic practising austerities.



Tashicage Willie Jolley List Price: Thank you for your interest You will be notified when this product will be in stock. Exchange offer not applicable. For Kautilya, good governance was paramount. Arthasgastra Center Got a question? Explore More Language Learning Books. He emphasised State control and investment in land, water and mining. Exchange Discount Summary X Item added to your basket.


Meztisho The Arthashastra dedicates many chapters on the need, methods and goals of secret service, and how to build then use a network of spies that work for the state. The same individual is meant in each case. One can lose a war as easily as one can win. Amazon Prime Music Stream millions of songs, ad-free. Kautilya was a true statesman who bridged the gap between experience and vision. Delivery and Returns see our delivery rates and policies thinking of returning an item? Visit our Help Pages.



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