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This configuration enables the rubber to be loaded in both shear and compression with the majority of engine rotational flexibility being carried out in shear. Vertical deflection due to body pitch when accelerating or braking is absorbed mostly in compression. Vertical elastic stiffness may be increased without greatly effecting engine roll flexibility by having metal spacer interleafs bonded into the rubber.

Double inclined wedge with longitudinal control mounting Fig. Precompression is applied to the rubber expanding the inner sleeve. The bush is set so that the greatest thickness of rubber is in compression in the laden condition.

A slot is incorporated in the rubber on either side where the rubber is at its minimum in such a position as to avoid stressing any part of it in tension. When installed, its stiffness in the fore and aft direction is greater than in the vertical direction, the ratio being about 2.

This type of bush provides a large amount of vertical deflection with very little fore and aft movement which makes it suitable for rear gearbox mounts using three point power unit suspension and leaf spring eye shackle pin bushes. Under small deflection conditions the shear and compression is almost equal, but as the load and thus deflection increases, the proportion of compression over the shear loading predominates.

These mounts provide very good lateral stability without impairing vertical deflection flexibility and progressive stiffness control. When used for road wheel axle suspension mountings, they offer good insulation against road and other noises. Flanged sleeve bobbin mounting with rebound control Fig. A central bolt attaches the inner tube to the body structure while the outer member is bolted on two sides to the subframe.

When loaded in the vertical downward direction, the rubber between the sleeve and tube walls will be in shear and the rubber on the outside of the flanged sleeve will be in compression. There is very little relative sideway movement between the flanged sleeve and inner tube due to rubber distortion. An overload plate limits the downward deflection and rebound is controlled by the lower plate and the amount and shape of rubber trapped between it and the underside of the flanged sleeve.

A reduction of rubber between the flanged sleeve and lower plate Fig. The load deflection characteristics are given for both mounts in Fig. These mountings are used extensively for body to subframe and cab to chassis mounting points. Metacone sleeve mountings Fig. During vertical vibrational deflection, the rubber between the sleeves is subjected to a combined shear and compression which progressively increases the stiffness of the rubber as it moves towards full distortion.

The exposed rubber at either end overlaps the flanged outer sleeve and there is an upper and lower plate bolted rigidly to the ends of the inner sleeve. These plates act as both overload bump and rebound stops, so that when the inner member deflects up or down towards the end of its movement it rapidly stiffens due to the surplus rubber being squeezed in between.

Mounts of this kind are used where stiffness is needed in the horizontal direction with comparative freedom of movement for vertical deflection. An alternative version of the Metacone mount uses a solid aluminium central cone with a flanged pedestal conical outer steel sleeve which can be bolted directly onto the chassis side member, see Fig. An overload plate is clamped between the inner cone and mount support arm, but no rebound plate is considered necessary.

These mountings are used for suspension applications such as engine to chassis, cab to chassis, bus body and tanker tanks to chassis. Hydroelastic engine mountings Figs 1. The space between both diaphragms is filled and sealed with fluid and is divided in two by a separator plate and small transfer holes interlink the fluid occupying these chambers Fig. Under vertical vibratory conditions the fluid will be displaced from one chamber to the other through transfer holes. During downward deflection Fig.

For low vertical vibratory frequencies, Double inclined rectangular sandwich mounting Fig. A bridging plate merges the resilience of the inclined rubber blocks so that they provide a combined shear and compressive 23 the movement of fluid between the chambers is unrestricted, but as the vibratory frequencies increase, the transfer holes offer increasing resistance to the flow of fluid and so slow down the up and down motion of the engine support arm.

This damps and reduces the amplitude of mountings vertical vibratory movement over a number of cycles. A comparison of conventional rubber and hydroelastic damping resistance over the normal operating frequency range for engine mountings is shown in Fig. Instead of adopting a combined rubber mount with integral hydraulic damping, separate diagonally mounted telescopic dampers may be used in conjunction with inclined rubber mounts to reduce both vertical and horizontal vibration Fig.

This coupling consists of a semicircular table plate with a central hole and a vee section cut-out towards the rear Fig. Attached underneath this plate are a pair of pivoting coupling jaws Fig. The semi-trailer has an upper fifth wheel plate welded or bolted to the underside of its chassis at the front and in the centre of this plate is bolted a kingpin which faces downwards Fig.

When the trailer is coupled to the tractor unit, this upper plate rests and is supported on top of the tractor fifth wheel table plate with the two halves of the coupling jaws engaging the kingpin. To permit Fig. Thus, although the trailer articulates about the kingpin, its load is carried by the tractor table. The fifth wheel table assembly is made from either a machined cast or forged steel sections, or from heavy section rolled steel fabrications, and the upper fifth wheel plate is generally hot rolled steel welded to the trailer chassis.

The coupling locking system consisting of the jaws, pawl, pivot pins and kingpin is produced from forged high carbon manganese steels and the pressure areas of these components are induction hardened to withstand shock loading and wear.

When coupling the tractor to the trailer, the jaws of the Hydroelastic engine mount 25 Fig. The jaws are then forced open and the kingpin enters the space between the jaws Fig.

The kingpin contacts the rear of the jaws which then automatically pushes them together. At the same time, one of the coupler jaws causes the trip pin to strike the pawl. When the tractor is moving, the drag of the kingpin increases the lateral force of the jaws on the plunger. To disconnect the coupling, the release hand lever is pulled fully back Fig. This draws the plunger clear of the rear of the jaws and, at the same time, allows the pawl to swing round so that it engages a projection hold-off stop situated at the upper end of the plunger, thus jamming the plunger in the fully out position in readiness for uncoupling.

The securing pin should then be inserted through the pull lever and table eye holes. When the tractor is driving forward, the reaction on the kingpin increases the locking force between the jaw projection and the notched pawl.

To disconnect the coupling, lift out the securing pin and pull the release hand lever fully out Fig. With both the tractor and trailer stationary, the majority of the locking force applied to notched pawl will be removed so that with very little effort, the pawl is able to swing clear of the jaw in readiness for uncoupling, that is, by just driving the tractor away from the trailer.

Thus the jaw will simply swivel allowing the kingpin to pull out and away from the jaw. When coupled, the towing eye hole is aligned with the vertical holes in the upper and lower jaws of the truck coupling and an eye bolt passes through both coupling jaws and drawbar eye to complete the attachment Fig. Lateral drawbar swing is permitted owing to the eye bolt pivoting action and the slots between the 1. When coupling the tractor to the trailer, the jaw of the fifth wheel strikes the kingpin of the trailer and swivels the jaw about its pivot pin against the return spring, slightly pushing out the pawl Fig.

Further rearward movement of the tractor towards the trailer will swing the jaw round until it traps and encloses the kingpin. The 26 Fig. Aligning the towing eye to the jaws is made easier by the converging upper and lower lips of the jaws which guide the towing eye as the truck is reversed and the jaws approach the drawbar.

Isolating the coupling jaws from the truck draw beam are two rubber blocks which act as a damping media between the towing vehicle and trailer. These rubber blocks also permit additional deflection of the coupling jaw shaft relative to the draw beam under rough abnormal operating conditions, thus preventing over-straining the drawbar and chassis system.

The ball part of the attachment is bolted onto a bracing bracket fitted directly to the boot pan or the towing load may be shared out between two side brackets attached to the rear longitudinal box-section members of the body. A single channel section or pair of triangularly arranged angle-section arms may be used to form the towbar which both supports and draws the trailer.

Attached to the end of the towbar is the socket housing with an internally formed spherical cavity. This fits over the ball member of the coupling so that it forms a pivot joint which can operate in both the horizontal and vertical plane Fig. To secure the socket over the ball, a lock device must be incorporated which enables the coupling to be readily connected or disconnected. This lock may take the form of a spring-loaded horizontally positioned wedge with a groove formed across its top face which slips underneath and against the ball.

The wedge is held in the closed engaged position by a spring-loaded vertical plunger which has a horizontal groove cut on one side. At the same time the whole towbar is raised by the handle to clear the socket and from the ball member. Coupling the tow bar to the car simply reverses the process, the uncoupling lever is again squeezed against the handle to withdraw the plunger and the socket housing is pushed down over the ball member.

The wedge moves outwards and allows the ball to enter the socket and immediately the wedge springs back into the engaged position. Releasing the lever and handle completes the coupling by permitting the plunger to enter the wedge lock groove. Operation of the automatic drawbar coupling Fig. When the truck is reversed, the jaws of the coupling slip over the towing eye and in the process strike the conical lower end of the eye bolt Fig.

Subsequently, the eye bolt will lift. This trips the spring-loaded wedge lever which now rotates clockwise so that it bears down on the eye bolt. Further inward movement of the eye bolt between the coupling jaws aligns the towing eye with the eye bolt.

The spring pressure now acts through the wedge lever to push the eye bolt through the towing eye and the lower coupling jaw Fig. When the eye bolt stop-plate has been fully lowered by the spring tension, the wedge lever will slot into its groove formed in the centre of the eye bolt so that it locks the eye bolt in the coupled position.

To uncouple the drawbar, the handle is pulled upwards against the tension of the coil spring mounted on the wedge level operating shaft Fig. This unlocks the wedge, freeing the eyebolt and then raises the eye bolt to the uncoupled position where the wedge lever jams it in the open position Fig. Extendable landing legs are bolted vertically to each chassis side-member behind the rear wheels of 30 Fig. Such joints are kingpins and bushes, shackle pins and bushes, steering ball joints, fifth wheel coupling, parking brake linkage etc.

These joints require lubricating in proportion to the amount of relative movement and the loads exerted. If lubrication is to be effective in reducing wear between the moving parts, fresh oil must be pumped between the joints frequently. To provide additional support for the legs, bracing stays are attached between the legs and from the legs diagonally to the chassis crossmember Fig. The legs consist of inner and outer high tensile steel tubes of square section. A jackscrew with a bevel wheel attached at its top end supported by the outer leg horizontal plate in a bronze bush bearing.

The jawscrew fits into a nut which is mounted at the top of the inner leg and a taper roller bearing race is placed underneath the outer leg horizontal support plate and the upper part of the jackscrew to minimize friction when the screw is rotated Fig.

The bottom ends of the inner legs may support either twin wheels, which enable the trailer to be manoeuvred, or simply flat feet. The latter are able to spread the load and so permit greater load capacity. To extend or retract the inner legs, a winding handle is attached to either the low or high speed shaft protruding from the side of the gearbox.

The upper high speed shaft supports a bevel pinion which meshes with a vertically mounted bevel wheel forming part of the jackscrew.

Rotating the upper shaft imparts motion directly to the jackscrew through the bevel gears. If greater leverage is required to raise or lower the front of the trailer, the lower shaft is engaged and rotated.


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Advanced Vehicle Technology



Advanced Vehicle Technology by Heinz Heisler



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