The time rate at which work is performed. The rate of use of energy. See Reducing the loss of energy sometimes requires different techniques from improving the use of energy, which is why this is a separate category. Frequently includes sensory data such as aroma, texture, etc.
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Innovation is commonly defined as being first to acquire new knowledge through leading-edge research: being the first to apply that knowledge to create sought after products and services, and being the first to introduce these products and services into the marketplace. If the U. Two fundamentally different kinds of research lead to innovation. The first is basic research, which is generally conducted by the federal government.
The second is research and development—also called applied research—which is usually undertaken by private firms. Basic research differs from research and development because it investigates basic science and is high-risk and seldom results in commercial products in the short-term. Private research and development, on the other hand, uses the new technological ideas discovered by basic research to develop new products and is driven by shareholder value and short-term profits.
The United States has a long history of investing in federal basic research going back to World War II when federal research was used to develop radar, electronics, atomic power, jet fighters, and many other technologies used to win the war.
After the war, the US continued to invest in basic science research, which was used to create many of the technologies and industries we see today. Federal basic research was the initial research used in developing the Google search engine, global positioning satellites, supercomputers, artificial intelligence, speech recognition, the Internet, smartphone technologies, the shale gas revolution, seismic imaging, LED light technology, magnetic resonance imaging MRI, advanced prosthetics, and the human genome project.
Many of these new technologies led to new industries spawning many new markets. The development of new technologies into useful products was accomplished by private companies, but all of these products came, initially, from federal basic research in many fields of science. As an example, transistors were not suddenly discovered by the electronics industry; they came from people working with wave mechanics and solid-state physics. Light-emitting diode technology began with the study of infrared emissions from gallium arsonide and other semiconductor alloys.
Magnetic resonance imaging came from research into spin echoes and free induction decay. How vital Is Basic Research? The study was based on an investigation of all patents issued from to and underscores the importance of funding basic federal research.
The following chart shows that as a percentage of GDP, federal research had fallen from a high of 2. The chart also shows that business research and development as a share of GDP continues to grow. The chart begs an obvious question: Since private research and development has grown from 0. Do we need federal basic research? I will make the argument that the answer to both questions is no—that we need to increase the federal necessary research budget.
One of the big problems facing corporations is the dominance of the financial sector. A good example is what happened to the DuPont Company. For more than years, DuPont has invented innovative products sold all over the world. Their experimental station—a research lab—created products like Nylon, Freon, Lycra, Neoprene, and Kevlar. They successfully did the stock buyback and laid off people worldwide.
The point here is that the emphasis is on short-term profits, cost-cutting, and stock buybacks, which can cannibalize innovation, slow growth and harm U. In this environment, there is little chance that the investment in basic research by U. Current problems 1. Foreign Competitors: The U. Federal research is now 0. During the same period, the U. Federal Deficits: One of the biggest problems facing the basic research budget, or any other non-defense budget, is the federal deficit.
A good example is a need for an infrastructure program to improve our highways, bridges, ports, sewers, water lines etc. In the long-term, disinvestment can lead to stagnant productivity, lagging competitiveness, and reduced innovation.
Ralph Gomory, former senior vice president of science and technology at IBM, succinctly summarized our current situation. Inside Triz Articles.
What is TRIZ?
Innovation is commonly defined as being first to acquire new knowledge through leading-edge research: being the first to apply that knowledge to create sought after products and services, and being the first to introduce these products and services into the marketplace. If the U. Two fundamentally different kinds of research lead to innovation. The first is basic research, which is generally conducted by the federal government. The second is research and development—also called applied research—which is usually undertaken by private firms. Basic research differs from research and development because it investigates basic science and is high-risk and seldom results in commercial products in the short-term.
However it is not a Theory - it is a big toolkit consisting of many simple tools - most are easy to learn and immediately apply to problems. This amazing capability helps us tackle any problem or challenge even when we face difficult, intractable or apparently impossible situations. TRIZ helps us keep detail in its place, to see the big picture and avoid getting tripped up with irrelevance, waylaid by trivial issues or seduced by premature solutions. Its tools and processes are faster to learn and easier to apply.