Gardazil Autosegmental phonology Public Private login e. There are metriacl in which the rule applies not to a particular value of a feature, but to whatever value the feature has. University of Newcastle Library. Grammar, Comparative and general — Phonology. The stress tier contains the features that show the distribution of stress in the phonological representation. Subjects Autosegmental theory Linguistics Metrical phonology.
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The working hypothesis of autosegmental analysis is that a large part of phonological generalizations can be interpreted as a restructuring or reorganization of the autosegments in a representation. Autosegmental Phonology — Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics For unary features to be fully specified, it is necessary to include binary subfeatures that correspond to them. Rather than classify segments using the categories given in the International Phonetic Alphabetthe autosegmental formalism makes use of distinctive features, which provide greater granularity and make identification of natural classes easier.
The early autosegmental notion of tiers of representation that were distinct but conceptually equal soon gave way to a model with one basic tier connected to tiers for particular kinds of articulation, including tone and intonation, nasality, vowel features, and others. Articles lacking in-text citations from March All articles lacking in-text citations. The autosegmental framework captured this naturally, since a sequence of elements on one tier can be connected to a single element on another.
In these situations, it is necessary to include the presence of the feature, but not to specify its value. Autosegmental phonology — Wikipedia This article includes a list of referencesrelated reading or external linksbut its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. It also makes it possible to concisely describe rules that apply to different environments in different ways.
The stress tier contains the features that show the distribution of stress in the phonological representation. Clear examples of the usefulness of autosegmental analysis came in early work from the detailed study of African tone languagesas well as the study of vowel and nasal harmony systems. Segments are depicted through vertical listings of features connected by lines.
Similar behaviors are widespread in long-distance phenomena, including intonation, vowel harmony, and nasal prosodies, as well as more locally with partial or full assimilation across adjacent segments. Many of the most interesting predictions of the autosegmental model derive from the automatic effects of the Well-formedness Condition and their independence of language-particular rules.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Autosegmental phonology In This Article 1. Later work modified many of the key properties of the autosegmental model. The autosegmental formalism departs from the depiction of segments as matrices of features in order to show segments as connected groups of individual features.
For example, a generic place feature can be indicated [ Oxford Research Encyclopedias Linguistics. This page was last edited on 22 Juneat The autosegmental formalism can be especially useful in describing assimilation rules. This has led to hierarchical representations of phonological features in current models of feature geometry, replacing the unordered distinctive feature matrices of early generative phonology. Leben Department of Linguistics, Stanford University.
An early sign that tones required a separate tier of representation was the phenomenon of tonal stability. No more specification is necessary because place is the only feature of the following segment that factors into the rule.
Environments can be shown by placing other connected sets of features around that which is the focus of the rule. The co-registration of elements or autosegments on one tier with those on another is represented by association lines.
The Autosegmental Framework 3. Access to the complete content on Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics requires a subscription or purchase. But the single most compelling aspect of the early autosegmental model was a natural account of tone spreading, a very common process that was only awkwardly captured by rules of whatever sort.
The tone tier contains the features that show the distribution of tones in the phonological representation. The behavior of contour tones in many languages also falls into place when the contours are broken down into sequences of level tones on an independent level or representation. Autosegmental representations and processes also provide a means of representing non-concatenative morphology, notably the complex interweaving of roots and patterns in Semitic languages.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. Optimality Theory has led to a radical rethinking of autosegmental mapping, delinking, and spreading as they were formulated under the earlier derivational paradigm. If you are a student or academic complete our librarian recommendation form to recommend the Oxford Research Encyclopedias to your librarians for an institutional free trial. In many tone languages, when vowels are lost historically or synchronically, their tones remain.
The timing tier contains timing units that define the lengths of segments in the phonological representation. The rule is that a coronal nasal will assimilate to the place of the following consonant. TOP Related Posts.
By John A. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, As part of this task, it introduces a number of original contributions to phonological theory. The book is thus both a textbook and more: it is a text in that it provides a basic introduction to current theories of nonlinear phonology and the organization of phonology; it is more than a text in that it introduces significant original contributions to these theories. Given its two distinct goals, this book is really worthy of two separate reviews.
Phonological theory : the essential readings
Segments are depicted through vertical listings of features connected by lines. These sets can also underspecify in order to indicate a class rather than a single segment. Environments can be shown by placing other connected sets of features around that which is the focus of the rule. Feature changes are shown by striking through the lines that connect a feature that is lost to the rest of the segment and drawing dotted lines to features that are gained. Voiced coronal stops Main article: Distinctive features Rather than classify segments using the categories given in the International Phonetic Alphabet , the autosegmental formalism makes use of distinctive features, which provide greater granularity and make identification of natural classes easier.