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Macroeconomics Principles Problems And Policies. Loose Leaf For Introductory Algebra. Anexo 11 Nyvall P. C Assessment of gene diversity in the red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata Rhodophyta based on expressed sequences tags EST. The development of this molecule altered the earth atmosphere causing a great impact in the history of the planet, redirecting the evolution of life. The oxygenic photosynthesis amabis biologia volume unico developed early in the history of life by a group of prokaryotes, the cyanobacteria.
This ability was later laterally transferred to the eukaryotic realm by the acquisition amabis biologia volume unico photosynthetic organelles plastids through the engulfment and retention of formerly free living cyanobacteria by an ancient eukaryotic cell. Three lineages of extant algae including amabis biologia volume unico ancestors of land plants vertically evolved from the cells which first acquired plastids.
Later on, the photosynthetic apparatus was laterally transferred to other unrelated eukaryotic lineages through independent secondary endosymbiosis, i. This gave rise to the second-hand or secondary plastid-containing algae, a diverse assemblage including disparate organisms such as euglenoids, dinoflagellates and kelps. Thus, the history of photosynthesis acquisition by eukaryotes is extremely complex, making very difficult to briefly define algae and to amabis biologia volume unico them from other organisms.
Current data support the view that plastid acquisition is a rather rare event and, accordingly, a single primary endosymbiosis followed by a few very ancient secondary endosymbiosis probably account for all extant plastid diversity. The Rhodophyta is one of three extant lineages which arose from the primary endosymbiosis and one of the main monophyletic groups within the eukaryotes. Traditionally the Rhodophyta has been divided in two subclasses, the paraphyletic Bangiophycidae and the monophyletic Florideophycidae.
Besides their evolutionary relevance, the Rhodophyta present great economic importance, especially as human feed and phycocolloid production. Even so, the knowledge about their genome and metabolism is very restricted. DNA sequencing has significantly contributed to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of algae and their plastids, besides providing information on metabolic and physiological potentials of those organisms.
To gain further insights on the origin, phylogeny and evolution of the red algae we have used molecular techniques to better understand:.
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O experimento de Miller, 19 3. A biosfera, 33 1. Os reinos de seres vivos, 33 2. Vitaminas, 40 Endocitose e exocitose, 67 4. O estudo do citoplasma, 75 4. Cromatina e nucleoplasma, 1.
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