Mystical experience turns the subject who lives it into an actual presence. Oceanografie by Mircea Eliade on Apple Books That is, it takes religious phenomena out of space and time in order to study them in their own essence and not in their immediate realization, for he treats empirical phenomena as types before he looks at them Prelegeri de filosofia religiei VI 56through a feeling of brotherhood and a specific conception about love. Share your thoughts with other customers. The same things were emphasized when he spoke about Spanish or German mystics. These themes, which circulated in and were taken up again inreappeared in the writings of historians and politicians who, consciously or unconsciously, cultivated the ambiguity between religious factors Orthodoxy and political ones.
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Life draw of Marcel Iancu, Mircea Eliade was born in Bucharest, Romania. Despite a childhood interest in entomology and botany which doubtless first attracted his attention to Goethe, a lifelong role model and inspiration , he developed an interest in world literature and was led from there to philology, philosophy, and comparative religion.
In Eliade enrolled at the University of Bucharest where he studied in the department of philosophy. The influence of Nae Ionescu b.
Finding that the Maharaja of Kassimbazar sponsored European scholars to study in India Eliade applied and was granted an allowance for four years. In he sailed for Calcutta to study Sanskrit and philosophy under Surendranath Dasgupta , a Cambridge educated Bengali, professor at the University of Calcutta, and author of a 5 volume, History of Indian Philosophy Motilal Banarsidass He returned to Bucharest in and successfully submitted his analysis of Yoga as his doctoral thesis at the Philosophy department in Published in French as Yoga: Essai sur les origines de la mystique Indienne this was extensively revised and republished as Yoga, Immortality, and Freedom.
From to he was active with the Criterion group who gave public seminars on wide-ranging topics. After the Second World War, during which he served with the Romanian Legation in the UK and Portugal, Eliade was unable to return to the newly communist Romania because of his connection with the right-wing Ionescu.
These were later published as Birth and Rebirth. In he was invited to assume the chair of the History of Religions department in Chicago. There he stayed until his death in , publishing extensively and writing largely unpublished fiction. Thought Despite his focus on the history of religions, Eliade never relinquished his philosophical agenda. That said, he never fully clarified his philosophy. There has been radical disagreement over his thought, some seeing it as a crucial contribution to the study of religion, and some seeing him as an obscurantist whose normative assumptions are unacceptable.
In Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return , a book which he was tempted to subtitle Introduction to a Philosophy of History, Eliade distinguishes between religious and non-religious humanity on the basis of the perception of time as heterogenous and homogenous respectively.
Eliade contends that the perception of time as an homogenous, linear, and unrepeatable medium is a peculiarity of modern and non-religious humanity. Archaic or religious humanity homo religiosus , in comparison, perceives time as heterogenous; that is, as divided between profane time linear , and sacred time cyclical and reactualizable. In the very process of establishing this distinction, however, Eliade undermines it, insisting that non-religious humanity in any pure sense is a very rare phenomenon.
Myth and illud tempus are still operative, albeit concealed, in the world of modern humanity and Eliade clearly regards the attempt to restrict real time to linear historical time as finally self-contradictory. He squarely sets himself against the historicism of Hegel. Eliade himself repeatedly identifies the sacred as the real, yet he states clearly that "the sacred is a structure of human consciousness" i; , xiii. This would argue more for the latter interpretation: a social construction of both the sacred and of reality.
Yet the sacred is identified as the source of significance, meaning, power and being, and its manifestations as hierophanies, cratophanies, or ontophanies accordingly appearances of the holy, of power, or of being. Corresponding to the suggested ambiguity of the sacred itself is the ambiguity of its manifestations. Eliade does state that believers for whom the hierophany is a revelation of the sacred must be prepared by their experience, including their traditional religious background, before they can apprehend it.
To others the sacred tree, for example, remains simply a tree. The conclusion must be that all beings reveal, and at the same time conceal, the nature of Being. Finally religion, systematically understood as the apprehension of relative worth conferred through non-historical realities including all abstract and imaginary entities but revealed and confirmed through historical phenomena is seen as a unifying human universal.
Leading assertions are scattered throughout his publications on the history of religions, alchemy, symbolism, initiation, myth, etc. Works[ edit ] The works are in Romanian unless noted. The links following respective editions point to their online versions; where no file format is specified abbreviations stand for digital archives. Links within the wiki are in green. Excepts Yoga. Excerpts Oceanografia, Roberto Scagno editor , intro R.
Scagno, trans. Cristina Fantechi, Milan: Jaca Book, Cosmologia e alchimia babilonesi, trans. Fragmentarium, trans. French Fragmentarium, trans. Il mito della reintegrazione, Milan: Jaca Book: French Tehnici Yoga, trans. French Patterns of Comparative Religion, trans. English Trattato di storia delle religioni, trans. Italian Tratat de istorie a religiilor, trad. Willard R. Italian Mito do eterno retorno, trans. Brazilian Portuguese El mito del eterno retorno.
Arquetipos y repeticion, trans. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, trans. English IS, Images et Symboles. Essais sur le symbolisme magico-religieux, Paris: Gallimard, FA, Forgerons et alchimistes, Paris: Flammarion, ; French The Forge and the Crucible, trans.
Stephen Corrin, London: Rider, SP, Das Heilige und das Profane, Italian O sagrado e o profano, trans. NM, Naissances mystiques. French Birth and Rebirth, trans. His Haskell Lectures at the University of Chicago. English Patanjali y el Yoga, trans.
French The Two and the One, trans. Cohen, University of Chicago Press, French Myth and Reality, trans. Paul G. Dinopol, intro. English La nostalgie des origines. French Nostalgia originilor. French Da Zalmoxis a Gengis-Khan, trans. Italian De la Zalmoxis la Ghenghis-Han.
Zalmoxis, the Vanishing God, trans. Willard Trask, University of Chicago Press, English RA, Australian Religion, intro. Based on a conference on held at Universiy of Chicago, English Religii australiene. O introducere, trans. English Occultisme, sorcellerie et modes culturelles, French Occultismo, stregoneria e mode culturali: saggi di religioni comparate, [Firenze]: Sansoni, .
HCIR, Histoire des croyances el des idees religieuses, vol. French A History of Religious Ideas, trans. I, , PDF ; vol. III, trans. English Historia de las creencias y las ideas religiosas, 4 vols. Eseu asupra originilor misticii indiene, trans. Immortality and Freedom, trans. English Yoga. German Yoga. Fragmenatrium, Bucharest: Humanitas,
Mircea Eliade bibliography