Es bezeichnet also den Zustand, in welchem ein Volk ohne festgesetzte Obrigkeit, ohne Regierung seine Angelegenheiten selbst besorgt. Wir wollen hier nicht in das Gebiet der Sprachwissenschaft abschweifen, denn die Frage ist keine sprachwissenschaftliche, sondern eine geschichtliche. Man gebraucht z. Wir haben schon gesagt, dass Anarchie eine Gesellschaft ohne Regierung ist. Und ist sie vorauszusehen? Untersuchen wir es.
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Early years[ edit ] Errico Malatesta was born to a family of middle-class landowners in Santa Maria Capua Vetere , Italy in the province of Caserta on 14 December More distantly, his ancestors ruled Rimini as the House of Malatesta. The first of a long series of arrests came at age fourteen, when he was apprehended for writing an "insolent and threatening" letter to King Victor Emmanuel II.
In he met Mikhail Bakunin , with whom he participated in the St. Imier Congress of the International. For the next four years, Malatesta helped spread Internationalist propaganda in Italy; he was imprisoned twice for these activities.
However, when the lodge organised a reception honouring Giovanni Nicotera , the Interior Minister, Malatesta left on 18 March and became anti-Masonic. In April , Malatesta, Carlo Cafiero , Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky and about thirty others started an insurrection in the province of Benevento , taking the villages of Letino and Gallo without a struggle. After leaving Gallo, however, they were arrested by government troops and held for sixteen months before being acquitted.
Even though the anarchists claimed to have no connection to Passannante, Malatesta, being an advocate of social revolution, was included in this surveillance. After returning to Naples , he was forced to leave Italy altogether in the fall of because of these conditions, beginning his life in exile. He went to Egypt briefly, visiting some Italian friends but was soon expelled by the Italian Consul.
The Swiss respite was brief, however, and after a few months he was expelled from Switzerland, traveling first to Romania before reaching Paris, where he worked briefly as a mechanic. He would come and go from that city for the next 40 years.
While respecting "complete autonomy of local groups" the congress defined propaganda actions that all could follow and agreed that "propaganda by the deed" was the path to social revolution. In August, he and three other men departed for Egypt.
They landed in Abu Qir , then travelled towards Ramleh, Alexandria. After a difficult crossing of Lake Mariout , they were surrounded and detained by British forces, without having undertaken any fighting.
He secretly returned to Italy the following year. Malatesta went back to Naples in —while waiting to serve a three-year prison term—to nurse the victims of a cholera epidemic. Once again, he fled Italy to escape imprisonment, this time heading for South America. Arrest in Italy[ edit ] Errico Malatesta around the s The late s were a time of social turmoil in Italy, marked by bad harvests, rising prices, and peasant revolts.
Harris jewellers Houndsditch. Gardenstein led the gang that mounted the abortive Houndsditch robbery that is the precursor to the Siege of Sidney Street.
Malatesta then took part in the International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam , where he debated in particular with Pierre Monatte on the relation between anarchism and syndicalism or trade-unionism. The latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution, while Malatesta considered that syndicalism by itself was not sufficient.
In , Malatesta appeared in Bow Street Police Court on a criminal libel defamation charge, which resulted in a 3-month prison sentence , and his recommendation for deportation.
This order was quashed following campaigning by the radical press and demonstrations by workers organisations. Two years after his return, in , the Italian government imprisoned him, again, although he was released two months before the fascists came to power. He was to spend his remaining years leading a relatively quiet life, earning a living as an electrician. After years of suffering from a weak respiratory system and regular bronchial attacks , he developed bronchial pneumonia from which he died after a few weeks, despite being given litres of oxygen in his last five hours.
He died on Friday 22 July He was an atheist.
Pamphlet first published in Downloaded with thanks from Endpage. We shall not enter into philological discussions, for the question is not philological but historical. The common interpretation of the word does not misconceive its true etymological signification, but is derived from it, owing to the prejudice that government must be a necessity of the organization of social life, and that consequently a society without government must be given up to disorder, and oscillate between the unbridled dominion of some and the blind vengeance of others. The existence of this prejudice and its influence on the meaning that the public has given to the word is easily explained. Man, like all living beings, adapts himself to the conditions in which he lives, and transmits by inheritance his acquired habits. Thus, being born and having lived in bondage, being the descendant of a long line of slaves, man, when he began to think, believed that slavery was an essential condition of life, and liberty seemed to him impossible.
Er trat der italienischen Sektion der Internationale bei. Durch die Ankunft von Truppen brach der Aufstand schnell zusammen. Aufgrund dieser Aktion war Malatesta gezwungen, das Land zu verlassen. Er kam auf Kaution frei und floh nach Argentinien , wo er auf den Aufbau der Arbeiterbewegung Einfluss nahm. In den Jahren und wurde er Zeuge des Massenstreiks in Belgien und erkannte die begrenzte Wirkung dieser Protestform.