Download Dear Readers, Welcome to this very special issue of Hakin9. For the second time we will be touching a very controversial subject — scanning with nmap. We are going to suprise everyone with plethora of fascinating content that will make your head spin. We wish you a nice read.
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Nmap has advanced features that can detect different applications running on systems as well as services and OS fingerprinting features. In most cases, I find that this does not often matter because rarely are the logs reviewed, but if they are then a key advantage of the penetration tester is lost — stealth. Using Nmap Nmap is available on almost all operating systems. It can be downloaded and installed on Windows, OS X, Linux, and even jailbroken and rooted mobile devices.
Installing Nmap is pretty simple. On most Debian based Linux systems you can open up a terminal window and type in the command: sudo apt-get install nmap Many systems come with Nmap preinstalled; therefore you can just start using the program.
For the purposes of this article we will assume Nmap on Backtrack 5 RC3 is being used. Nmap comes preinstalled on Backtrack 5 so there is no need to install it. The commands and basic usage for Nmap are relatively the same regardless of what platform you use it on. To use Nmap we will bring up a terminal window command prompt if you installed this on Windows.
Back in , nmap was a Linux only utility, but today it is a cross-platform, lightweight network security scanner. To install nmap from a terminal, run: sudo apt-get install nmap Figure 1. Nmap does both IPv4 and IPv6. With IPv4 you can use a variety of notation to scan entire subnets, specific addresses, or spaces of a subnet; You can even scan multiple subnets in one command or point to a list of targets in a file.
By default, without options, nmap will scan check the top most used ports. Also, these top ports are a mixture of protocols and numbers. Interface overview Figure 2. Nowadays it is a great set of tools with extensible framework, providing opportunity to integrate it with external scripts. You can get information about all features and distributions at the official www. Initial setup is quite straightforward. For Windows machines in most cases you just need to download the all-in-one installer, launch it as an administrator, leave all boxes checked by default and play click-click-next game.
We will use new-school approach and show all examples in GUI. However, if you are tending to stay classic, then you can launch command prompt and navigate to Nmap. Figure 1. Scan results for my SOHO router 16 Your very first scan If some Internet websites are available, then your default gateway is definitely up. Let us scan it!
Find out its address by typing ipconfig in command prompt and looking for default gateway value for appropriate interface. As an alternative, you can use dummy scan target at scanme. This is the output for my environment Figure 1.
We will provide an overview while dropping some technical details this time. NMAP definitely has held its reputation as being a go-to tool when network analyst and security researchers need it. According to the NMAP website nmap. In addition to large networks, many people use it to identify security holes in single hosts such as proxy or gateway service devices.
Individual usage varies depending on the need of the administrator. For example, some administrators use it to simply conduct network inventories and to identify unauthorized hosts where others may use it to identify what services are being offered by particular hosts. Additionally, it can be used for utilitarian uses such as determining how long a system has been up. There are numerous uses for this simple tool.
Amongst all the numerous advanced features of the tool probably the most highly utilized is the port scanning feature. A close second would be the feature used to map networks with various obstacles in the way such as: IP Filters, Firewalls, and routers. The Service and Operating System identification features would rank high in the list of uses as well. As useful as this tool is to define what a particular network is or looks like, the ultimate goal of an administrator is to use the tool to ensure these details are not available to others.
So how does it work? The developing trends of ethical hacking and offensive security have transformed the information security industry into one of the most self-perpetuating industries in the world. T he software and tools that are used to secure vulnerable information assets are the same tools that can be used to exploit them. Perhaps the tools that were created for the sole purpose of exploiting information assets are now being used to safeguard them. My intentions are more modest.
I merely seek to justify the importance of a tool that has been consistently labeled as malicious hacking software. The tool that I am referring to is Network Mapper, or nmap for short. Whether you are a crazed rogue agent that is bent on inciting global revolution or a network security professional hopefully the latter, rather than the former , nmap should have a permanent place in your toolkit.
And I think the only reason that it is often labeled as such is because of its very impressive list of capabilities. Despite its potential to do harm, nmap can certainly play an 26 important role in securing a network infrastructure within a professional environment. Nmap has steadily evolved over the years from a simple scanning utility into a full blown penetration testing platform. It can be used in every step of the security auditing process, to include network discovery, port scanning, service enumeration, vulnerability mapping and even exploitation.
Throughout this article, I will discuss the capabilities of nmap as they pertain to each step in the penetration testing process. Installation and Preparation Obviously, prior to using nmap, it is important to have a functional version installed on the system that you are using.
However, it can also be loaded to nearly any platform of your choice. Nmap can easily be installed on all commonly used operating systems to include Windows, Linux and OSX.
T he premise of NetD is simple enough: the protection of information residing in, or transmitting through, network information systems NIS. What does that have to do with nmap?
You ask. To be blunt, everything: Nmap was one of the basic tools we would start students on. I say nmap is relatively easy to get using, but take that with a grain of salt. As you can see in the screen capture below, by running nmap —help, we are presented with a wealth of option flags for our use Figure 1.
These tools are designed for the professional network penetration tester pentester and the network security admin. However, as with all test and administration tools, they can be used for nefarious purposes. My target will be my other computer, running on the Figure. N map is arguably the most well-known and widely-used information security tool in existence and the capabilities are almost endless.
Fast forward to today; Fyodor is still writing new versions currently version 6. Nmap supports thousands of different features and types of scans.
Nmap interface overview Figure 2. A quick scan 40 There are very few people who understand the full power of Nmap. The commands are the same whether you type them into a terminal window or the Zenmap window. The main aim of this software is to perform host and services discovery and network reconnaissance. The initial release written by Gordon Lyon also known as Fyodor Vaskovich if you watch Defcon talks was back in September of Fyodor keeps the NMAP project rolling which today gives us version 6.
N MAP is a network scanner but not a security measure. Even the old school Amiga is capable of running NMAP if you have all the time in the world to get the source code to run on it.
I will explain later. Another very common en- 44 vironment would be academia where NMAP is often part of educational networking programmes. Although this being a double edged sword we could also use it to audit the network we are trying to gain unauthorised access to. I would know being an Internet Service Provider myself. You can use Nmap to scan entire networks with a simple line of command or just an individual host.
To the casual observer, Nmap is just a network port scanner. However, it is a powerful toolkit comprised of many useful utilities commands and GUI. The flow of this article is to start from the very basic and then incrementally introduce capabilities of Nmap with real life demonstrations that are safe to execute.
And sprinkled around in this article footnotes are links back to the Nmap site so that you can further your research from there. At the end of this simple how to, I hope you will like Nmap and use it in many ways possible for your mission. In short, what you will learn from this article: that later with examples and screen captures to let you preview the simplicity of the GUI.
Nmap comes with a very nice GUI and you can do pretty much everything with it. I will come to 50 Figure 1. This instructional will guide you through using Nmap to effectively scan a subnet for live hosts, determine the status of firewall ports, iterate through running services and identify vulnerabilities.
Outlined below is the layout of that network Figure 1. Web01 our victim server is running Ubuntu Installation of Nmap using Aptitude in Ubuntu Server. Sandbox network for Nmap testing. It was designed for large networks, but works on single hosts as well. It runs on all major Operating Systems and in addition to the classic command-line Nmap executable, it also includes an advanced GUI and results viewer Zenmap.
Ex: google. The argument 0 can be specified for a never-ending scan Figure 1.
Vscan - Vulnerability Scanner Tool Using Nmap And Nse Scripts
The Hakin9 magazine publishes an Nmap guide this month. The best article is the first one, which Hakin9 apparently published without even reading. And they told me I could post it as a sample of their work. Plus it is full of text like: "Our experiments soon proved that exokernelizing our fuzzy Knesis keyboards was more effective than making autonomous them, as previous work suggested. Our experiments soon proved that microkernelizing our PDP 11s was more effective than exokernelizing them, as previous work suggested. We note that other researchers have tried and failed to enable this functionality. Furthermore, we reduced the effective tape drive throughput of our stochastic overlay network.
How to Use Nmap: Commands and Tutorial Guide
Nmap has advanced features that can detect different applications running on systems as well as services and OS fingerprinting features. In most cases, I find that this does not often matter because rarely are the logs reviewed, but if they are then a key advantage of the penetration tester is lost — stealth. Using Nmap Nmap is available on almost all operating systems. It can be downloaded and installed on Windows, OS X, Linux, and even jailbroken and rooted mobile devices. Installing Nmap is pretty simple.
Nmap Cheat Sheet
At its core, Nmap is a network scanning tool that uses IP packets to identify all the devices connected to a network and to provide information on the services and operating systems they are running. The program is most commonly used via a command-line interface though GUI front-ends are also available and is available for many different operating systems such as Linux, Free BSD, and Gentoo. Its popularity has also been bolstered by an active and enthusiastic user support community. Nmap was developed for enterprise-scale networks and can scan through thousands of connected devices.