This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Introduction Hereditary gingival fibromatosis HGF is a rare disease characterized by gingival enlargement, normal color with benign and firm consistency. This growth may be exacerbated by use of drugs and plaque build-up. The treatment for this clinical condition is surgical excision of the enlarged gingival tissue or the extraction of all teeth. Case Report A year-old Brazilian female handicapped patient with a chief complaint of exaggerated gingival enlargement who had been prescribed Carbamazepine and Gardenal was referred to our center.
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This condition has been noted to be present from birth it has a congenital presentation. What are the other Names for this Condition? This condition has been noted to be present from birth it has a congenital presentation The cause of HGF is believed to be genetic factors. A common risk factor for the condition is the presence of various genetic syndromes and a family history of the disease The most common treatment for Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis is surgery. After surgery, post-surgical therapy and monitoring is required to help the patient return to normal function, ensuring that complications do not arise With prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis is good.
In some cases, the gum tissue growth may recur on an incomplete surgical removal Who gets Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis? Age and Sex Distribution Infants and young children are usually affected as Heredity Gingival Fibromatosis can be seen at birth Both males and females may be affected by this condition; the incidence rate is almost equal between males and females The condition can occur worldwide.
Predisposing Factors The primary risk factor for Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis is a family history of the condition. HGF has been found to be inherited in both autosomal dominant only one mutated allele and autosomal recessive two mutated alleles pattern Other genetic defects and genetic syndromes have also been found to predispose individuals to the condition It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition.
A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.
It is also important to remember that not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. What are the Causes of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis? The signs and symptoms of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis may include: Growth of tissue on the gums: This condition typically results in tissue growth on the gums, which is less than 1 cm in size along the larger dimension Gums of both the upper and lower jaw can be affected HGF on the gums is normally painless and slow-growing The tissue masses are usually firm to the touch and well-defined Masses may be present as single or multiple, well-defined nodules, at various locations on the gums In some cases, Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis may cause bleeding from the gums, or gum ulcerations How is Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis Diagnosed?
The following are some diagnostic tools used to identify Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis: A thorough physical examination and a complete medical history: A physical examination will allow the physician to determine, if there is a growth on the gums; while a complete medical history will identify, if any risk factors are present that may make an individual more susceptible to developing Heredity Gingival Fibromatosis A tissue biopsy of the tumor: A tissue biopsy is performed and sent to a laboratory for a pathological examination.
A pathologist examines the biopsy under a microscope. After putting together the clinical findings, conducting special studies on tissues if needed and organizing the microscopic findings, the pathologist arrives at a definitive diagnosis. Examination of the biopsy under a microscope by a pathologist is considered to be the gold standard, in arriving at a conclusive diagnosis Sometimes, the pathologist may perform special studies, which may include immunohistochemical stains, histochemical stains, molecular testing, and very rarely, electron microscopic studies Differential diagnosis, to eliminate other tumor types, is also often conducted, before arriving at a definitive diagnosis Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms.
Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions before arriving at a definitive diagnosis. What are the possible Complications of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis? No significant complications due to Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis have been reported. However, in rare cases: The tumor may become large in size, resulting in a cosmetic issue Gum infections due to ulceration of large tumors may be seen The condition may recur after surgical excision, if the tumor is incompletely removed How is Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis Treated?
The following are some of the treatment methods outlined for Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis: Usually no treatment is required, due to the benign nature of HGF Some growths caused by HGF are self-limiting and asymptomatic, requiring no treatment at all; these growths may even regress completely If the growths are too large, a gingivectomy complete surgical removal may be performed If HGF is causing cosmetic issues, a surgical removal may be necessary and is recommended Follow-up care with regular screening and check-ups are important The healthcare provider will determine the best course of treatment depending on each specific case.
How can Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis be Prevented? Currently, there are no specific methods or guidelines to prevent Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis, since it is a genetic condition. However, the following information is useful with respect to HGF: Early diagnosis, with close monitoring and treatment of the tumor is important Prompt treatment and early tumor recognition will help in having an optimal outcome Genetic testing of the expecting parents and related family members and prenatal diagnosis molecular testing of the fetus during pregnancy may help in understanding the risks better during pregnancy If there is a family history of the condition, then genetic counseling will help assess risks before planning for a child What is the Prognosis of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis?
The more severe these conditions, the more difficult HGFs are to treat and control Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis: Drug-induced gingival fibromatosis is a common benign condition of the gums.
It is a slow-growing tumor that is caused as a side effect of certain drugs; hence, it is a drug-induced condition. What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?
Gingival fibromatosis, 2
E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Hereditary gingival fibromatosis HGF is a rare condition that can occur as an isolated disease, chromosomal abnormality, or as part of a number of syndromes. The gingival enlargement in HGF can be so severe that it can cover the crowns of teeth completely, causing severe functional derangement and facial disfigurement. Through review of literature revealed that HGF is usually an autosomal dominant condition, however the recessive forms are also reported. The hyperplastic gingiva is firm on palpation and has normal color with abundant stippling on the adjacent gingiva.
Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis
Mechanism[ edit ] Genetic linkage studies are among the most popular methods of study to look at the mechanism of this HGF. Genetic linkage studies have found to localize genetic loci for autosomal dominant forms of HGF to chromosome 2pp22 indicative of HGF1 and chromosome 5qq22 indicative of HGF2. Here, a mutation is found in sequencing these 16 genes. This causes a problem because SOS1 introduces a frameshift mutation and creates a premature stop codon. Also, it can segregate over generations, most commonly four. Once it causes a premature stop codon, the chromosome loses four important proline -rich SH-3 binding domains in the carboxyl-terminal region of the SOS1 protein. As a result, the N-terminal amino acids for SOS1 is fused into a 22—amino acid carboxyl terminus.
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis
This condition has been noted to be present from birth it has a congenital presentation. What are the other Names for this Condition? This condition has been noted to be present from birth it has a congenital presentation The cause of HGF is believed to be genetic factors. A common risk factor for the condition is the presence of various genetic syndromes and a family history of the disease The most common treatment for Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis is surgery.