Kelly Chapter Vehicle Systems Note: If you are not at all familiar with basic electronics, you might find it easier to understand this chapter if you read chapter 12 first. There are two or three main objectives for people who create automotive devices — increasing the mpg performance and reducing the harmful emissions are the top two priorities, while running the vehicle on water alone is the aim of a few people. The first two objectives are readily achievable, but running a vehicle on water alone is not going to happen for almost everybody. This is just not true.

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Kelly Chapter Vehicle Systems Note: If you are not at all familiar with basic electronics, you might find it easier to understand this chapter if you read chapter 12 first. There are two or three main objectives for people who create automotive devices — increasing the mpg performance and reducing the harmful emissions are the top two priorities, while running the vehicle on water alone is the aim of a few people.

The first two objectives are readily achievable, but running a vehicle on water alone is not going to happen for almost everybody. This is just not true. While I have never heard of anyone, anywhere, ever getting an engine to run on these plans, the present day science of water is so inadequate, that I am not in a position to be certain that they could not work, and so I am just highly doubtful about them being viable devices. Just before getting on to explain the construction details of practical systems, let me put the running of an engine on water alone in its proper context.

This means that at least half of the energy available from the fuel which you use is wasted and does not produce any useful mechanical output power. The main way of running an engine with water as the only fuel, involves splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen and then burning those gases to power the engine.

Just to set the record straight, it is possible to run a vehicle without using fossil fuel, but the difficulty level of doing that is about the same as building a rocket capable of going into orbit, which is something well beyond the capabilities of most people, including me. This document does tell you how it can be done, but please understand that it calls for exceptional skills, very considerable expenditure and a great deal of patience, so for the time being, please forget about it.

What can be done quite readily and at low cost, is to construct a device which will raise the efficiency of your engine. An important side effect of this improvement in the burn quality of the fuel is the fact that unburnt fuel no longer gets pushed out of the exhaust as harmful emissions. Another effect is that the engine has greater pulling power and runs smoother. Inside your engine, carbon deposits will have built up from previous un-boosted running. These deposits get burnt away when you use a booster and that extends the engine life.

Some people worry about the fact that burning hydroxy gas produces water and they imagine this water causing rusting inside the engine. It is the carbon part of the hydrocarbon fuel which is the problem, producing Carbon dioxide greenhouse gas , Carbon monoxide, and physical carbon deposits inside the engine. Adding a small amount of hydroxy gas has no adverse effects at all. This document describes different types of booster. Let me stress that each engine is different and it depends on how inefficient the engine is to begin with, what sort of mpg improvement is likely to be produced by a booster.

Just to make sure that you understand what is involved, a booster is a simple container which holds a set of plates submerged in water which probably has an additive to make the water conduct electrical current better. A pipe from the top of the container feeds the gas into the air filter of the vehicle, via one or two simple safety devices.

Adding this gas causes a major improvement in the quality of the fuel burn inside the engine and cuts harmful emission to near zero. As a consequence of this, it is possible to reduce the amount of fossil fuel being sent to the engine, which is not something which should be done if hydroxy gas is not being added, as the engine is liable to overheat and some valve damage could occur.

It is a completely different matter if hydroxy gas is being added. Unfortunately, the much improved exhaust caused by the better fuel burn caused by the hydroxy gas, causes the ECU to think that the engine fuel-air mix must be too low, and so it pumps in more fuel in an effort to compensate.

Ideally, this can be dealt with by adding a circuit board which adjusts the signal coming from the oxygen sensor so that it is correct for the improved fuel burn.

Details of how to do this are in a companion document. Using a booster improves the efficiency of the fuel burn inside your engine and that results in more power, better torque, smoother running and vastly improved exhaust emissions. If the ECU is not adjusted or its input signal not controlled, the mpg figures may actually get slightly lower due to unwanted excess fuel being pumped into the engine.

If a control circuit is used to correct this ECU error, then mpg gains will be produced. So, what mpg gains can be expected? This chapter is divided up into the following sections: 1. Simple DC boosters, using a volt electrical input. Advanced DC boosters using much higher DC voltages. Water-splitters which use pulsed electrical signals to change water into "hydroxy" gas. Running engines without fossil fuels. Other useful devices. One thing which needs to be understood: Caution: A booster is not a toy.

If you make and use one of these, you do so entirely at your own risk. Neither the designer of the booster, the author of this document or the provider of the internet display are in any way liable should you suffer any loss or damage through your own actions. While it is believed to be entirely safe to make and use a properly built booster, provided that the safety instructions shown in this document are followed, it is stressed that the responsibility for doing this is yours and yours alone.

Simple DC Boosters It is important that you understand the basic principles of electrolysis if you are to be successful in building and operating a booster, or alternatively, buying and operating a booster.

A "DC booster" operates on "Direct Current" which is the sort of electrical power delivered by a car battery. The method is very simple in basic outline. Two metal plates are placed in water and an electric current is passed between the plates.

This causes the water to break down into a mixture of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas The two components used in the Space Shuttle. The greater the flow of current, the larger the volume of gas which will be produced. The arrangement is like this: Remembering that the result of doing this is to produce fuel for the Space Shuttle, you should avoid doing this indoors and letting the gas produced by the process collect on the ceiling. There are many videos on the web where people act in a dangerous manner and perform electrolysis indoors using a container which is open at the top as shown above.

Just like the fact that a very useful chain saw is a dangerous device which needs to be treated with respect, so too, please understand that the very useful hydroxy gas mix contains a lot of energy and so needs to be treated with respect.

This style of electrolysis of water was investigated by the very talented and meticulous experimenter Michael Faraday. He presented his results in a very technical and scientific format which are not understood by most ordinary people.

But in simple terms, he tells us that the amount of hydroxy gas produced is proportional to the current flowing through the water, so to increase the rate of gas production, you need to increase the current flow.

Also, he found that the optimum voltage between the two "electrode" plates is 1. This sounds a bit technical, but it is a highly useful piece of information. In the arrangement shown above, twelve volts is being connected across two plates in water. Faraday tells us that only 1. As we want to make hydroxy gas and not steam, this is bad news for us.

One way around the problem is to use two cells like this: This arrangement uses our 1. That is quite an improvement but even more important is the fact that twice as much hydroxy gas is now produced, so we have doubled the electrical efficiency and doubled the gas output, giving a result which is four times better than before.

We could go one step further and use three cells like this: This time we are using three of our 1. This is definitely going in the right direction, so how far can we take it when using a twelve volt battery? Of course, it would not be practical to have six boxes each as large as a car battery as we would never manage to fit them into most vehicles.

Perhaps we could just put all the plates inside a single box. Unfortunately, if we do that, a good deal of the electric current would flow around the plates and not make much gas at all. A top view of this arrangement is shown here: This is a disaster for us as now we will not get your six times the gas production or our massively reduced heating.

Thankfully, there is a very simple fix for this problem, and that is to divide the box up into six watertight compartments using thin partitions like this: This gives us back our high efficiency by blocking the current flow past the plates and forcing the current to flow through the plates, producing gas between every pair of plates. In passing, if this booster were to be powered by the electrics of a vehicle, then the voltage although called "twelve volts" will actually be almost fourteen volts when the engine is running so that the "twelve volt" battery will get charged.

This would allow us to use seven cells inside our electrolyser, rather than the six cells shown above and that would give us seven times the gas volume that a single pair of plates would give.

Some people prefer six cells, and others, seven cells - the choice is up to the person constructing the unit. It has been found that with many vehicle engines, very good performance gains can be had with a hydroxy gas production rate of less than 1 litre per minute "lpm". Flow rates of as little as 0. Remember, the hydroxy gas from a booster is being used as an igniter for the regular fuel used by the engine and not as an additional fuel. The big advantage of an efficient booster design is that you can produce the wanted volume of gas using a much lower current, and so, a lesser extra load on the engine.

Admittedly, there is not much additional engine load needed by a booster, but we should reduce the extra amount by intelligent design. In the discussion above, the battery has been shown connected directly across the booster or "electrolyser". This should never be done as there is no protection against a short-circuit caused by a loose wire or whatever.

There should be a fuse or a circuit-breaker as the first thing connected to the battery. They are not expensive as they are manufactured in very large volumes.

They are also available on eBay. The circuit breaker is wired like this: a common design rated at 32 amps looks like this: Some would-be constructors feel that some aspects of the construction are too difficult for them. Here are some suggestions which might make construction more straightforward. Constructing a seven-cell housing is not difficult.

Pieces are cut out for two sides, one base, one lid and six absolutely identical partitions. These partitions must be exactly the same so that there is no tendency for leaks to develop. If you decide to use the bent-plate system of electrodes shown on the next few pages, then drill the bolt holes in the partitions before assembling them: The bottom piece is the same length as the sides, and it is the width of the partitions plus twice the thickness of the material being used to build the housing.

The case would be assembled like this: Here, the partitions are fixed in place one at a time, and finally, the second side is attached and will mate exactly as the partitions and ends are all exactly the same width. A simple construction for the lid is to glue and screw a strip all the way around the top of the unit and have the lid overlap the sides as shown here: A gasket, perhaps of flexible PVC, placed between the sides and the lid would assist in making a good seal when the lid is bolted down.

The gas outlet pipe is located in the centre of the lid which is a position which is not affected if the unit is tilted when the vehicle is on a steep hill. Years of testing have shown that a really good choice of material for the electrode plates is L grade stainless steel. However, it is very difficult to connect those plates electrically inside the cells as you need to use stainless steel wire to make the connections and bolted connections are really not suitable.

That leaves welding the wires to the plates and welding stainless steel is not something which a beginner can do properly as it is much more difficult than welding mild steel. There is a good alternative, and that is to arrange the plate material so that no wire connections are needed: While this six-cell design may look a little complicated to a quick glance, it is really a very simple construction.

Each of the plates used in the central cells is just this shape: The plate shapes shown above are arranged so that there is access to the bolts from above and they can be reached by a spanner and held steady while the other nut is being tightened. Unless you are skilled in bending plates, I suggest that you use stainless steel mesh for the plates. It works very well, can be readily cut using tin snips or any similar tool and it can be bent into shape by the home constructor using simple tools - a vice, a piece of angle iron, a small piece of mild steel sheet, a hammer, etc.

You will find a skip outside any metal fabrication shop where scrap pieces are tossed for recycling. There will be off-cuts of various sizes of angle iron and all sorts of other small sections of sheet and strip.



Incredible discoveries about the nature of electricity were becoming common place. Nikola Tesla was demonstrating " wireless lighting " and other wonders associated with high frequency currents. There was an excitement about the future like never before. Within 20 years, there would be automobiles, airplanes, movies, recorded music, telephones, radio, and practical cameras. The Victorian Age was giving way to something totally new. For the first time in history, common people were encouraged to envision a utopian future filled with abundant modern transportation and communication, as well as jobs, housing and food for everyone. Disease would be conquered, and so would poverty.


So siehst du heute Nacht den Sternschnuppen-Regen!

Vurr So, how does the magnet do it? The force that drives the magnet forward comes from the gradient of the magnetic funnel as the fields try to expand against each other. As a consequence a scientist can reject the idea of a demon being invoked by an incantation outright as being outside the realm of physical possibility. Using it on a fridge or fridge-freezer is very informative as the cumulative reading ojkbook the actual amount of current draw over a day, and at night, with the lower temperatures and nearly zero opening of the door, the current draw is very much lower than the peak current draw. The reason for this is human rather than technical.

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