Ong A , Lauren J. Young A and Julie M. B Corresponding author. Email: j. It comprises more than 30 proteins working to remove foreign cells by way of anaphylatoxins, opsonins or the membrane attack complex.

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Ong A , Lauren J. Young A and Julie M. B Corresponding author. Email: j. It comprises more than 30 proteins working to remove foreign cells by way of anaphylatoxins, opsonins or the membrane attack complex.

Over the last few years, whole genome sequences of non-eutherian mammals marsupials and a monotreme , the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica , tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii , Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii , koala Phascolarctos cinereus and platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus , have become publicly available. Using these sequences, we have identified an array of complement components in non-eutherians using online search tools and algorithms.

Of 57 complement and complement-related genes investigated, we identified 46 in the gray short-tailed opossum genome, 27 in the tammar wallaby genome, 44 in the Tasmanian devil genome, 47 in the koala genome and 40 in the platypus genome.

The results of this study confirm the presence of key complement components in the immune repertoire of non-eutherian mammals and provide a platform for future studies on immune protection in young marsupials. Additional keywords: immunity, marsupial, metatherian, monotreme. References Abarrategui-Garrido, C. Blood , — Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancer-specific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis.

Proteomics 10, —


Immunology of placentation in eutherian mammals

Peter Parham, Campus Dr. Abstract Natural killer NK cells are a population of lymphocytes that function in both immune defense and reproduction. As a consequence of strong and variable selection these ligand-receptor systems are polymorphic, rapidly evolving, and considerably species-specific. Even then, the human system appears qualitatively different from that of chimpanzees, in that it has evolved a genetic balance between particular groups of receptors and ligands that favor reproductive success and other groups of receptors and ligands that have been correlated with disordered placentation. Human populations that have survived successive episodes of epidemic disease and population bottlenecks maintain a breadth of diversity for KIR and HLA class I, implying that loss of such diversity disfavors long-term survival of a human population. Keywords: HLA, natural killer cells, balancing selection, evolution, immunity, reproduction Immunogenetics was a term coined originally to describe the use of antibodies as tools for distinguishing the alternative alleles of genes that influence the structure of proteins and carbohydrates on blood cell surfaces [ 1 ].


Immunogenetics of Human Placentation

In all viviparous animals the embryonic development takes place inside the uterus of the mother, because the eggs are microlecithal and the amount of stored yolk is not sufficient to cope up the needs of the developing embryo. Such embryos get attached to the uterine wall to draw essential substances from the maternal circulation through the placenta. Image Courtesy : upload. It serves for the transport of nutrients from the mother tissues with those of the embryo as well as the exchange of gases between the tissues of the two. Thus a placenta may be defined as a temporary connection between the maternal and foetal tissues for the purpose of shelter, nutrition, respiration, excretion and defense. Development of placenta: When the mammalian embryo enters the uterus, it remains bathed in the uterine fluid containing organic substances produced by the tubular glands of the uterine wall. The early embryo may absorb some of these substances through the epithelial covering till the placenta formation.


Placentation in Mammals: Definition, Development and Types | Biology


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