KRASHEN AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS PDF

Explanation of Hypothesis Application for Teaching The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. Acquisition involves the subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication; this is the process used for developing native languages. Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction. According to this theory, the optimal way a language is learned is through natural communication. As a second language teacher, the ideal is to create a situation wherein language is used in order to fulfill authentic purposes. Krashen states that monitoring can make some contribution to the accuracy of an utterance but its use should be limited.

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Explanation of Hypothesis Application for Teaching The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability.

Acquisition involves the subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication; this is the process used for developing native languages. Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction. According to this theory, the optimal way a language is learned is through natural communication. As a second language teacher, the ideal is to create a situation wherein language is used in order to fulfill authentic purposes.

Krashen states that monitoring can make some contribution to the accuracy of an utterance but its use should be limited. As an SL teacher it will always be a challenge to strike a balance between encouraging accuracy and fluency in your students. This balance will depend on numerous variables including the language level of the students, the context of language use and the personal goals of each student.

This balance is also known as Communicative competency. The Natural Order hypothesis According to Krashen, learners acquire parts of language in a predictable order. For any given language, certain grammatical structures are acquired early while others are acquired later in the process.

This hypothesis suggests that this natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and therefore teachers cannot change the order of a grammatical teaching sequence. According to this hypothesis, teachers should be aware that certain structures of a language are easier to acquire than others and therefore language structures should be taught in an order that is conducive to learning.

Teachers should start by introducing language concepts that are relatively easy for learners to acquire and then use scaffolding to introduce more difficult concepts. The Input hypothesis This hypothesis suggests that language acquisition occurs when learners receive messages that they can understand, a concept also known as comprehensible input.

This hypothesis highlights the importance of using the Target Language in the classroom. The goal of any language program is for learners to be able to communicate effectively. By providing as much comprehensible input as possible, especially in situations when learners are not exposed to the TL outside of the classroom, the teacher is able to create a more effective opportunity for language acquisition.

This hypothetical filter does not impact acquisition directly but rather prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain. According to Krashen the affective filter can be prompted by many different variables including anxiety, self-confidence, motivation and stress. In any aspect of education it is always important to create a safe, welcoming environment in which students can learn. In language education this may be especially important since in order to take in and produce language, learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks.

To learn more about creating a positive classroom environment, click here. The Reading Hypothesis This hypothesis basically states that the more we read in a SL the greater our vocabulary will be.

It is important to involve reading in the language classroom to increase knowledge of the language and the way it is used in real-life contexts. Explain your answers.

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Input hypothesis

It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. A deductive approach in a teacher-centered setting produces "learning", while an inductive approach in a student-centered setting leads to "acquisition". The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. They focus on form or think about correctness. They know the rule.

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For example, a coffee filter is placed above the cup, where placed inside are coffee grounds. When hot water is poured over the grounds the filter acts as an intermediary turning the dense bitterness of the material into a savory liquid. An affective filter can be thought of in a similar way. They have linguistic devices that are accomplishing feats of language acquisition. This is a very simple visual of the affective filter in language acquisition but it illustrates an important point that instructors need to be reminded of, that their students have a layer of variables that can either hinder or help second language acquisition.

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