THE BIG BOOK OF BUCKYBALLS PDF

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Richard Smalley Many footballs have the same arrangement of polygons as buckminsterfullerene, C In the early s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex , led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances.

They used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target, [15] a range of carbon clusters could be studied. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars. A solid rotating graphite disk was used as the surface from which carbon was vaporized using a laser beam creating hot plasma that was then passed through a stream of high-density helium gas.

Clusters ranged in molecular masses, but Kroto and Smalley found predominance in a C60 cluster that could be enhanced further by allowing the plasma to react longer.

They also discovered that the C60 molecule formed a cage-like structure, a regular truncated icosahedron. The research group concluded after reactivity experiments, that the most likely structure was a spheroidal molecule. The idea was quickly rationalized as the basis of an icosahedral symmetry closed cage structure. Kroto mentioned geodesic dome structures of the noted futurist and inventor Buckminster Fuller as influences in the naming of this particular substance as buckminsterfullerene.

Huffman observed unusual optical absorptions in thin films of carbon dust soot. The soot had been generated by an arc-process between two graphite electrodes in a helium atmosphere where the electrode material evaporates and condenses forming soot in the quenching atmosphere.

Among other features, the IR spectra of the soot showed four discrete bands in close agreement to those proposed for C This extract had TEM and X-ray crystal analysis consistent with arrays of spherical C60 molecules, approximately 1.

The discovery of practical routes to C60 led to the exploration of a new field of chemistry involving the study of fullerenes. Synthesis[ edit ] High-vacuum electrolysis of a Cfullerene derivative.

Slow diffusion into the anode right side yields the characteristic purple color of pure C Soot is produced by laser ablation of graphite or pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes are extracted from the soot with organic solvents using a Soxhlet extractor.

These fractions are separated using chromatography. The van der Waals diameter of a C 60 molecule is about 1. The nucleus to nucleus diameter of a C 60 molecule is about 0.

The C 60 molecule has two bond lengths. The ring bonds between two hexagons can be considered " double bonds " and are shorter than the bonds between a hexagon and a pentagon. Its average bond length is 0. Each carbon atom in the structure is bonded covalently with 3 others. The model is built of magnetic balls 5mm diam. The model suggests 4 nearest-neighbors to each atom, this is possible because the hexagons are squeezed. Properties[ edit ] Buckminsterfullerene is the largest object observed to exhibit wave—particle duality ; theoretically every object exhibits this behavior.

The exposed surface of the structure can selectively react with other species while maintaining the spherical geometry. Around this time, intense theoretical group theory activity also predicted that C60 should have only four IR-active vibrational bands, on account of its icosahedral symmetry. C 60 tends to avoid having double bonds in the pentagonal rings, which makes electron delocalization poor, and results in C 60 not being " superaromatic ".

C60 behaves very much like an electron deficient alkene and readily reacts with electron rich species.

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Buckminsterfullerene

Richard Smalley Many footballs have the same arrangement of polygons as buckminsterfullerene, C In the early s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex , led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances. They used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target, [15] a range of carbon clusters could be studied. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars.

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