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A number of other poets als Damodar. Inay pedlaps claim-the highest rank among- the romances of the. In Urdu also, there is a series of romances-masanavis as they are called-which deal with spiritual or sensual love.

They were written primarily by the poets of the South right from the beginning of the 17th century-Mulla Wajahi wrote Kutub-Mushtari in A. The Urdu poets in the North also tried their hand at romanceS. But quite often their tone was different. Devotion is a vital element in Indian religion and as such there has been a vast treasure of devotional literature in almost all our languages from the very beginning.

This element is still richer in the languages of the South where devotional writing began much earlier also. In the later Medieval Age A. In the Prabandha Period A. Kannada, Vaish- nava literature covers one full era-the third lira in the history of earlier Kannada literature is called the Vaishnava Era.

Real Vaishnava poetry is found in the countless prayerful songs of poets like Purandara Das and Kanaka Das who belonged to the 17th century A. These songs exercise a vital influence on the cultural life of Karnatak even today by virtue of their rich emotional content and popular lyrical style.

Whereas Valmiki has portrayed Rama as a great man and a noble ruler, Eluttaccan has deified Him like Tulsidas and has offered prayers to Him with feelings of warm devotion. After him, Vaishnavism found an extremely effective exponent in Tuka Ram whose songs the abhangas cast a spell all over the Maharashtra region.

It was, however, on Gujarati and on the languages of the East, namely on Bengali, Assamese and Oriya that Vaishnavism showered its choicest blessings. One could pay as glowing tributes to the Krishna- Kavya of the Eastern languages-especially of Bengali. The poetic literature which was written dur- ing a century and a half after Chaitanya under his direct inspiration can be divided into two categories: i biographical, and ii lyrical.

Then, there was the Vaishnava Sahajiya sect tor which love was the means and the end both: although it sometimes looks like a branch of Vaishnavism, yet in reality it was a successor of the original Sahajiya sect.

The devotee has to realize in himself or herself Krishna or Radha first-and then through their union he or she can achieve the state of eternallove or eternal bliss. The poets of this sect have composed thousands of songs and written a large number of technical treatises on the subject. Thus the Vaishnava literature in Bengali was dominated by poets of the Krishna cult.

Yet the contribution of the Ramaites was not quite insignificant: the Ramayana ofKrittibas Ojha by itself is a work of rare merit. This k1. Urdu and Panjahi are, however, exceptions in this respect. Although in Urdu as well, one could name a few poets who have written about Rama and Krishna-not only the Hindus but also some of the Muslims like Nazir Akbarabadi have written poems of devotion to Krishna-yet such poetry is insig- nificant both in quantity as well as in quality and does not really agree with the spirit and genius of Urdu poetry as such.

Similar is the case with Panjabi. The Panjab was first under the influence of Islam and then Sikhism, which believed in an Absolute God, became the popular religion there, with the result that not much scope was left for Vaishnavism.

Among the languages of the North-West, Hindi, of course, possesses an immensely rich treasure ofVaishnava poetry. Poets of almost aJl the Krishnaite sects wrote profusely in Brajbhasha. Besides the poets of VaJlabha Sampradaya, who had their stronghold in Braj, the poets of other sects also such as the Nimbarka, the Gaudiya and the Madhwa made valuable contribu- tions.

The Radha-Vallabh Sampradaya of Hita Harivansha and several other sects which based their philosophy primarily on Eros wrote passionate poetry on the erotic life of Radha and Krishna. The poets of the Ramaite cult had their stronghold in the regions of Oudh.

From all points of view-devotional fervour, philosophical profundity and poetic wealth-Tulsidas reigns supreme. There are two major currents in Hindi Rama-kavya : one emphasises the moral aspects of life under the influence ofTulsidas and the other revels in the gaie- ties of lite and depicts Rama as a romantic hero and although the first note is predominant by and large, the second also is not entirely insignificant.

Thus, taken as a whole, the medieval Indian litera- ture is dominated by Vaishnavism and within Vaishnava poetry itself the Krishnaites hold the field. In this context, one is naturally reminded of the dramatic literature in Indian languages wherein the note of basic unity is still more remarkable. Here it is not the similarity of the theme, but the similarity of the form and the style which is really amazing: in all these forms of the Indian folk-drama we come across the same Iwmriance of lyrical element, the same lack of action, and the same religious or pseudo-religious motifs.

Hereafter begins the modern age in which the lines of develop- ment are all the more identical. The impact of Western civilization was felt in the South and in Bengal a little earlier than in the central and North-Western regions, but the dawn of the Modern Age in India is marked not so much by the contact as by the conflict with the Western civilization-in other words by the rise of political cons- ciousness in India and as such the Modern Age in all the Indian languages covers more or less the same period.

During these hundred years from to A. With some difference of time, all these trends can be easily discerned in the various literatures of modern India. In Tamil, the leader of the Renaissance WaS Ramlinga Swamigal who made a successful effort through his writings to revive the glory of ancient Indian culture and evoke a broad outlook by emphasising the unity of the various castes and creeds. He was l! Chidambaram Pillai and V. The leader of the Renaissance movement in Telugu was Viresalingam: his contribu- tion which is large in volume and varied in form, is in essence inspired by the new cultural awakening in the country to which he made a handsome contribution in his own way.

Ramamurti and Gurzada V. Apparao gave this cultural awakening further impetus and started the modern Telugu movement. In the first quarter of the 20th century, poets "like Rayaprolu Subbarao lent romantic splendour to Telugu poetry and in the fourth and fifth decades Srirangam Sriniwasarao and Dasarathi brought into Telugu literature a feeling of sharp social consciousness under the influence of Communism.

In Kannada, the modern age was ushered in with the establishment of the Karnataka Vidya-vardhaka Sangha in when its founders who had all received Western education launched a scheme of translating into Kannada important works of English and Sanskrit.

This gave them an opportunity to review and revive the past in new light. The movement gathered momentum from the Non-cooperation campaign of Mahatma Gandhi and a number of patriotic poets such as Srikantayya, Govinda Pai, Bendre, Sankara Bhat infused new vigour into life and literature.

For about two decades these two currents flowed in full swing; thereafter, the impact of Marxian philosophy was felt by the authors of Kannada also and Krishna Rao, Karanth, Niranjana and a few other younger poets voiced the sentiments of the exploited masses with great gusto.

So also in Kerala- the region of Malayalam, modern education had begun to show its effect in the middle of the 19th century. Classical works from English and Sanskrit were translated to cope with the growing needs of education. Raja Varma.

By about A. The main inspiration was Left Wing politics. This school received its inspiration and strength from critics like A. Balakrishna PiIJai, M. Paul and Joseph Mundasseri. Kurup and P. As early as the middle of the last century, several talented writers of Marathi translated the works of Kalidas. Bhavbhuti and Shudraka on the one hand and of Milton.

Scott, Pope, Gray, Goldsmith and Wordsworth on the other and thus imported a new imagery into Marathi. The historians of Gujarati divide their modern literaturdn three phases: i A. They run more or less parallel to similar phases in other literatures. The dominant figure in the first era, namely the renais. In the second phase, the national,cultural forces came to the forefront and they received further impetus in the third era. Gandhi was the fountain- head of this stream and a number of talented Gujarati writers received inspiration from him directly or indirectly.

Nanhalal, Prof. Munshi are the leaders of this school. The romantic art flowered in the lyrics of poets like Pujalal whose poetry combines in itself a subtle sense of beauty with charming imagery of an unconventional pattern. About , in Gujarati also, the echoes of the Progressive Movement were heard in the works of several young poets like Maniar and others. Similarly, the experimentalists like Rajendra Shah and his colleagues are showing activity for the last one decade or so.

Of modern Indian literatures, Bengali is possibly the richest in many respects. The contact of Bengal with Europe was more intimate and direct and, therefore, modern age dawned there a little earlier and with greater splendour than in the Western regions.

Rabindra Nath had a universal poetic vision: his sympathies transcended the borders of the country and embraced the whole of humanity so that his nation- alism always had a broad human and cultural base. Thus, he was the fountain-head of the two powerful currents of Modern Indian POetry-namely, the National-cultural school and the Romatic-mystic school.

Although both of them are equally important, yet the latter attracted a larger number of followers and the new romantic trends which developed in various Indian languages in the first quarter of this century drew their inspiration from Rabindra Nath.

In the fourth decade, however, there was a reaction against him and several Bengali authors who were iufluenced by Leftist ideologies raised their voice against the bourgeois mentality of Rabindra and Sharat. In poetry Subhash Mukhopadhyaya and in fiction Manik Bandyopadhyaya revolted against the two leaders and gave free expression to Marxian ideals. Then came the intellectuals like Vishnu De and others who are trying to recast the basic poetic pattern to suit the emotional and intellectual requirements of the modern age.

In Assamese and Oriya also the evolution has been more or less similar. In Assamese literature, Anandaram Phukan was the urst pilot of the nationalist movement and his collaborators were Kamalakant Bhattacharya, Hemchandra Barua and others who roused national consciousness by their heroic ballads and debunked prevalent social evils through their satires.

The sentiments of p;ltriotism which had infused new vigour into modern Assamese literature found fullest expression in the writings of these three authors and of several others inspired by them. Of late, Assamese poetry has also caught the infection of modern intellectualism and the new generation of poet-sat least the modem of them-are imita- ting Eliot and his colleagues with great zeal. Similarly, in modern Oriya literature, we find more or less parallel phases of evolution.

There, the pioneers were Fakirmohan Senapati, Radhanath and Madhusudan. The light which they kindled blazed in full splendour in the writings of Gopabandhu Das and his contemporaries. The Satyavadi group of Gopabandhu was the stronghold of national and cultural re-awakening in Orissa and many a litterateur was directly or indirectly connected with it.

Their attitude towards life and literature was, however, so rigidly moralistic from the very beginning that the urge for beauty and aesthetic,bliss was as though throttled. The poetical works of Baikunth Pattanayak and the novels and stories of Kalindicharan Panigrahi fall in this category. They also, like their sister lang- uages, saw the dawn of Renaissance in the middle of the 19th century.

The Christian Missions also played their part. In A. InUrdu,Hali wrought radical reforms by removing from poetry shackles of conventional forms and using it. Sir Syed renovated Urdu prose and fashioned it to! In Hindi, this period is known as Bhartendu Era in which Bhartendu and his literary friends rejuve- nated old techniques and introduced new forms in Hindi to cope witp the demands of new life.



JoJorisar I also share this with all my friends, acquaintances. Oaak 10, The western gate by which the visitors enter the Taj complex is a camparatively minor gateway. A Sanskrit inscription too supports the conclusion that the Taj originated as a Shiva temple. At the south east corner of the Taj is an ancient royal etory house. Had those been installed by Shahjahan they should have been shown the public as a matter of pride. Oak is no different.



Kigabei Perhaps when a child he bankei zen to have a sinful idea, acted upon it, and let the habit bankei zen of itself. Just meet your end with the ordinary [natural] zazen mind. When Bankei was 11, his father died, and in the following year he entered school. He led long retreats, ezn in a very loving and non-restrictive manner. Can you help me? The Buddha Mind is Unborn because it is always here, innate, and it enlightens the mind. Trying to suppress delusion is delusion too.



A number of other poets als Damodar. Inay pedlaps claim-the highest rank among- the romances of the. In Urdu also, there is a series of romances-masanavis as they are called-which deal with spiritual or sensual love. They were written primarily by the poets of the South right from the beginning of the 17th century-Mulla Wajahi wrote Kutub-Mushtari in A. The Urdu poets in the North also tried their hand at romanceS.

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